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HFPT 



POTASH 
PAYS 




POTASH PAYS 



Practical suggestions to farmers showing 
how to use fertilizers with profit 




Published by 

THE GERMAN KALI WORKS, 

(INCORPORATED) 

NEW YORK, CHICAGO, ILL. 

42 BROADWAY MONADNOCK BLOCK 

ATLANTA, GA. NEW ORLEANS. LA. 

1212 EMPIRE B'LD'G. WHITNEY BANK B^D'O. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



NOTICE 

Every farmer ran obtain , free of charge , a copy of the 
following agricultural books. 

POTASH IN AGRICULTURE 

COTTON CULTURE (REVISED) 
TOBACCO CULTURE 

TROPICAL PLANTING 

STASSFURT INDUSTRY 

SUGAR CANE CULTURE 

THE COW PEA 

PLANT FOOD 

TRUCK FARMING 

WHY THE FISH FAILED 

FARMER'S NOTE BOOK 

STRAWBERRY CULTURE 
ORANGE CULTURE 

VALUE OF SWAMP LANDS 

SUGAR BEET CULTURE 

State which of the above mentioned publications you desire^ 

and it ivii'l be mailed ic you free of charge. 



ADDRESS: 

GERMAN KALI WORKS, 

NEW YORK, N. Y. CHICAGO, ILL. 

42 Broadway 448 Monadnock Blk. 

ATLANTA, GA. NEW ORLEANS, 

1212 Empire B'ld'g. Whitney Bank B'ld'g. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

V s ^* fl 



POTASH PAYS 




| MERICAN farmers and fruit growers are rightly 
regarded as the most intelligent, enterprising, and 
prosperous of their class. Our farmers make a suc- 
cess of their business, because they are up-to-date and ever 
ready and quick to adopt the latest improvements and the 
newest methods. They take advantage of the teachings 
of science, and make practical use of recent discoveries, 
whereby they increase the fertility of their lands and gather 
large and profitable crops. 

It is no wonder, then, that our farmers in California and 
other States now pay so much attention to the important sub- 
ject of supplying plant food to their different lands. They 
not only know, but they have found out that it is necessary 
to put back into the soil those substances which have been 
taken out year after year by their crops. Science has shown 
that potash, phosphoric acid and nitrogen are continually 
used up from the soil by growing crops. Unless these sub- 
stances are returned in the form of fertilizers, the farmer's 
lands will surely and steadily lose their productiveness, 
and sooner or later his yields of grains, or fruits, or vege- 
tables, as the case may be, will become less and less. 

No matter how rich the soil may be, the result is the 
same, when crop after crop is gathered from the same land. 
And so when a farmer is asked: " Why do you fertilize your 
land?" He at once replies "To feed my crops/' Fertilizers 

274371 



4 POTASH PAYS 

are crop foods. It is simply a question of feeding the crops, 
as it is in feeding live stock on the farm. Just as different 
animals require different kinds and amounts of food, so the 
different soils and crops need certain substances, which are 
contained in a proper fertilizer, for their best development 
or condition. 

Some farmers and fruit growers in California and other 
States may cling to the old notion that, as the soil is still 
new, it does not need potash and the other elements which 
have been removed by the successive crops. But this is a 
mistake. If they did not need potash, California farmers 
would not buy the large quantities which they do at the 
present time. Those who are using potash on their farms 
and orchards in California are getting a good profit on their 
investment. Their opinion that "potash pays" is the best 
testimony to its value. Such an opinion is based upon 
practical experience and upon the actual results from the 
increased crops which they obtain from the proper use of 
potash with the other necessary ingredients. 

While certain tests with certain soils in California have 
shown that they contained considerable potash, yet the 
important question is: "How much of this potash is avail- 
able as plant food?" Or, the question may be asked: "Is 
this potash naturally in the soil in a soluble condition?" 
If the pot?sh is in an insoluble condition it is useless to 
plant growth, and potash fertilizers must be used in order 
to obtain proper yields. The mere statement that a chemical 
analysis shows considerable potash in a soil is not sufficient, 
for by present chemical methods it is impossible to determine 
the quantity of plant food which is available to the different 
plants growing on the soil. 

How many of our readers ever carefully considered the 
large quantities of potash, phosphoric acid, and nitrogen 



POTASH PAYS 5 

which are lost, so to speak, each year? Do you know the 
number of pounds of valuable potash taken per acre by 
any of the leading crops? If not, you should read and 
study this list: 



Table Showing the Amount of Potash Removed by Crops 

and Quantity of Potash Salts Needed to 

Return Fertility to the Soil 



Crop 


1 

Yield 

1 


Actual Potash 
Removed 


Muriate or Sulfate 
of Potash Needed to 
Return Fertility 


Apples 


15 


tons 


60 Ibs. 


120 Ibs. 


Barley 


*30 


bu. 


51 Ibs. 


102 Ibs. 


Beans 


*30 


bu. 


53 Ibs. 


106 Ibs. 


Buckwheat 


*34 


bu. 


40 Ibs. 


80 Ibs. 


Cabbage 


30 


tons 


270 Ibs. 


540 Ibs. 


Clover (dry) 


2 


tons 


88 Ibs. 


176 Ibs. 


Corn 


*70 


bu. 


55 Ibs. 


110 Ibs. 


Grapes 


*2 


tons 


39 Ibs. 


78 Ibs. 


Hops 


*600 


Ibs. 


53 Ibs. 


106 Ibs. 


Mixed Hay 


2M 


tons 


77 Ibs. 


154 Ibs. 


Oats 


*60 


bu. 


62 Ibs. 


124 Ibs. 


Onions 
Pears 


22^ 
16 


tons 
tons 


72 Ibs. 
26 Ibs. 


144 Ibs. 
52 Ibs. 


Peas 


*30 


bu. 


52 Ibs. 


104 Ibs. 


Plums 


8 


tons 


40 Ibs.. 


80 Ibs. 


Potatoes 


*200 


bu. 


74 Ibs. 


148 Ibs. 


Rye 


*30 


bu. 


45 Ibs. 


90 Ibs. 


Sugar Beets 


*15 


tons 


143 Ibs. 


286 Ibs. 


Timothy Hay 


2 


tons 


94 Ibs. 


188 Ibs. 


Tomatoes 


10 


tons 


54 Ibs. 


108 Ibs. 


Wheat 


*35 


tons 


31 Ibs. 


62 Ibs. 



*NOTE; Includes straw, stover, vines, pods, etc, in addition. 



6 POTASH PAYS 

All of the foregoing crops also remove from the soil the 
other two essential elements of plant food, which are phos- 
phoric acid and nitrogen. Of course it is quite necessary 
that all three of these plant foods be present in the soil in 
order that the growing crops get suitable food or nourish- 
ment. Potash, phosphoric acid, and nitrogen each have 
their own value and do their separate work; so that one 
can not take the place of the other. A proper mixture of 
these three ingredients makes what is known as a * 'complete 
fertilizer." The average farmer can usually make his own 
mixtures. In fact, many farmers prefer to buy their potash 
and other plant foods and mix them to suit their soil and 
their different crops. The amounts of potash, phosphoric 
acid, and nitrogen depend on the nature and condition of 
the soil, as well as on the kind of crop to be grown: 

Another important point to remember is, that the quanti- 
ties of plant food which each crop actually requires can not 
be measured by the exact number of pounds of potash and 
the other plants foods removed by that crop from the soil. 
The reason is that plant roots can only reach a certain 
amount of plant food in the soil, while the rest is not taken 
up. Therefore, practical tests and experience have shown 
that larger quantities of potash, phosphoric acid, and 
nitrogen must be supplied than the actual number of 
pounds per acre removed by the yield. 

The practical farmer and fruit grower will ask: "How 
can I find out just what kind and how much fertilizing 
material I should use for such and such a crop?" 

In reply, we would suggest that the farmer or fruit 
grower make a few simple tests of fertilizers for himself, 
and this each one can do at a very small amount of trouble 
and expense. 

The best way is to lay out "experimental plots." You 



POTASH PAYS * 

should take small plots of ground of the same size and 
give each one the same kind of treatment, except as to 
its fertilization. Three such plots may be laid out as 
follows : 



Plot No. 1 

Check Plot No Fertilizer Applied 



Plot No. 2 

Use c complete Fertilizer, containing Potash, Phosphoric Acid 
and Nitrogen 



Plot No. 3 

Apply an ' 'Incomplete Fertilizer, ' ' containing only 
Phosphoric Acid and Nitrogen 



Now compare the results. The difference in yields on 
Plots Nos. 1 and 2 will show the gain from using a complete 
fertilizer on the land. 

The difference in the yields on Plots 2 and 3 will show 
the loss from not having Potash in the fertilizer. 

Just such experiments have been made by a number of 
practical farmers in California. They cover a wide range 
of soils in that State and many different crops. The in- 
teresting results thus obtained are set forth in the following 
pages. 



POTASH PAYS 



EXPERIMENT ON PEACHES 

This experiment, made by Mr. H. E. Butler, for the 
Penryn Fruit Company, clearly demonstrates the value of 
fertilizers for the orchard. Moreover, it clearly shows the 
value of Potash in producing large yields of superior fruit. 

The Lovell peach was the subject of the test and the 
soil over the acre used for the experiment was a clay loam 
with a decomposed granite subsoil. The trees were six 
years old at the time the experiment was started in 1906. 
There was a crop failure during that year but quite satis- 
factory crops were harvested in 1907 and 1908, as shown 
in the following table: 



Plot 


Fertilizer applied per acre Yields per acre 
in pounds in pounds 


Increase over 
unfertilized plot 


1 


Xo fertilizer 


1907 1908 


1907 


1908 


6150 


7500 








2 


120 Muriate Potash 
600 Superphosphate 
180 Nitrate Soda 


12300 


20000 


6150 


12500 


3 


600 Superphosphate 
180 Nitrate Soda 


8610 


12500 


2460 


5000 



In 1907 increase from 120 pounds of Muriate of Potash 
psr acre, was 3690 pounds Peaches. In 1908 increase from 
123 pounds of Muriate of Potash per acre, was 7500 pounds 
Peaches. Average increase from 120 pounds of Muriate 
of Potash per acre, was 5595 pounds Peaches. 



Comparative Yields, 1908. Experiment by H. E. Butler, Penryn, Cal. 




Incomplete Fertilizer ( NO POTASH ) Yield, 6M tons per acre 




Complete Fertilizer (WITH POTASH) Yield, 10 tons per acre 




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POTASH PAYS 11 



EXPERIMENT ON BARTLETT PEARS 

This experiment, by Mr. C. E. Hustler, Cortland, Cal., 
was conducted on sandy loam soil in an orchard 25 years 
old and on trees in good bearing condition. Although there 
was trouble from blight in some parts of the orchard, this 
did not affect the results of the experiment. 

The following is an account of the amount of fertilizer 
applied, the yields, and the increase due to the use of 
fertilizers: 



Plot 


Fertilizer per acre in pounds 


Yield per acre 
in pounds 


Increase per acre 
over unfertilized 
in pounds 


1 


No fertilizer 


56160 





2 


180 Sulfate of Potash 
600 Acid Phosphate 
180 Dried Blood 


70720 


14560 


, 600 Acid Phosphate 
; 180 Dried Blood 


62400 


6240 



Increase from the use of the complete fertilizer was 280 
"picking" boxes averaging 52 pounds each. The increase 
from the use of 180 pounds of Sulfate of Potash was 160 
'picking" boxes. 



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POTASH PAYS 



EXPERIMENTS ON RAISIN GRAPES 

The experiment illustrated on the preceding page, 
conducted by Mr. A. J. Bump, Orosi, Cal., was made in a 
ten year old vineyard of Muscat Grapes. 

Owing to depletion of soil fertility the yields were not 
very satisfactory, but through the use of fertilizers contain- 
ing potash a marked increase has been obtained as shown 
by the following results : 



Plot 


Amount of fertilizer material 
applied per acre in pounds 


Yield per acre 
in pounds 


Increase over 
unfertilized plot 
in pounds 


1 


No Fertilizer 


1908 


1909 


1908 


1909 


1854 


2028 










120 Sulfate of Potash 










2 


600 Superphosphate 
180 Nitrate Soda 


2624 


2522 


770 


494 


3 


600 Superphosphate 
180 Nitrate Soda 


2088 


2132 


234 


104 



The test on grapes described on the following page 
was made in the vineyard of F. C. Lewis, Fowler, Cal. 
"Thompson's Seedless" was selected for this experiment, 
and the results, reported for two years show that potash 
was essential to the largest yields, a good profit being 
obtained from its use. 



Plot 



Amount of fertilizer material 
applied per acre in pounds 



No fertilizer 

120 Muriate Potash 
600 Superphosphate 
180 Nitrate Soda 

600 Superphosphate 
180 Nitrate Soda 



Yield per acre 
in pounds 



Increase over 

unfertilized plot 

in pounds 



1908 


1909 


1908 


1909 


2391 


3746 








5211 


4950 - 


2820 


1204 


4640 


4550 


2249 


804 



Experiment on Seedless Raisin Grapes, by F. C. Lewis, Fowler, Cal. 




Plot No. 2 Fertilized with High Grade POTASH Fertilizer 




Plot No. 3 Grapes Fertilized withoutfcPOTASH 



POTASH PAYS 



15 



EXPERIMENT ON ORANGES 

The results of the following experiments made at four 
different farms, near Porterville and Riverside, should be 
carefully studied by the practical grower. These trials 
show large increases produced by using potash fertilizers in 
conjunction with nitrogen and phosphoric acid. 

Experiment by W. H. Grant, Porterville, Cal., Oranges 
on black adobe over clay subsoil. 



Plot 


Fertilizer applied per acre 
in pounds 


Yield per acre 
in pounds 


Increase over 

unfertilized plot 
in pounds 


1 


No 


fertilizer 


1908 


1909 


1908 


1909 


12285 


11660 










120 


Sulfate Potash 










2 


600 
180 


Superphosphate ; 17940 
Nitrate Soda 


23328 i 5655 


11668 


3 


600 
180 


Superphosphate 
Nitrate Soda 


15765 


17280 


3480 


5620 



Average increase from about $3.50 spent for Potash 
4,112 pounds Oranges. See photo page 17. 



Experiment by H. C. Carr, Porterville, Cal., Navel 
Oranges, on deep loam soil (clay subsoil). 



p Fertilizer applied per acre 
in pounds 


Yield per acre 
Picking boxes 


Increase per acre 
over 
unfertilized plot 


1 


No fertilizer 


648 


2 


600 Superphosphate 
180 Sulfate Potash 
150 Dried Blood 


864 216 


3 


600 Superphosphate 
150 Dried Blood 


756 


108 



The increase from about $5.00 worth of Potash, was 
108 boxes. See photo page 18, 



16 



POTASH PAYS 



Experiment by O. K. Kelsey. Riverside, Cal., on sandy 
loam soil. 



Plot 


Fertilizer applied per acre 
in pounds 


Yield po- acre 
in packed boxes 


increase per acre due 
to potash 




320 Sulfate Potash 






2 


1440 Superphosphate 
640 Nitrate Soda 


391 


61 


3 


1440 Superphosphate 
640 Nitrate Soda 


330 





Notwithstanding the heavy application, Potash gave a 
good profit, 61 boxes of Oranges from abont $9.00 worth 
of Potash. See photo page 19. 



Experiment by W. E. Sprott, Porterville, Cal., Navel 
Oranges, sandy loam soil. 



Plot 


Fertilizer applied per acre 
in pounds 


Yield per acre 
picking boxes 


Increase per acre over 
unfertilized plot 
(picking boxes) 


1 


No Fertilizer 


335 







180 Sulfate of Potash 






2 


180 Dried Blood 


507 


172 




600 Superphosphate 






3 


180 Dried Blood 
600 Superphosphate 


381 


46 



Increase from abont $5.00 worth of Potash 126 boxes. 
See photo page 20, 



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Increase from 320 Ibs. Sulfate of Potash, 61 boxes. 



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POTASH PAYS 



EXPERIMENTS ON LEMONS ON SANDY 
LOAM SOILS 

Here is a record of two experiments on a rnore elaborate 
plan made by Mr. J. C. Davidson, of Chula Vista, Cal., 
and J. R. Caldwell, of El Cajon, Cal. These tests, like 
those on oranges, show that citrus fruits in California 
respond readily to the use of fertilizers and particularly 
to potash. 



Plot 


Fertilizer applied per 
acre in pounds 


Yield per acre, boxes 


Increase over 
unfertilized plots 
per acre 


J. C. Davidson 
9 pickings 


J.R. Caldwell 
4 pickings 


Davidson 


Caldwell 


1 


No fertilizer 


592 


50 







2 


240 Sulfate Potash 
540 Acid Phosphate 


708 


112 


116 


62 


3 


240 Sulfate Potash A7 , 
180 Nitrate Soda 


93 


83 


43 


4 


180 Nitrate Soda 
540 Acid Phosphate j 


104 


41 


54 


i240 Sulfate Pota-h 






5 540 Acid Phosphate 
1180 Nitrate Soda 


714 


133 


122 83 


360 Sulfate Potash 






6 270 Nitrate Soda 


724 


93 132 43 


810 Acid Phosphate 







The increase from the use of 240 pounds Sulfate of 
Potash per acre, was 81 boxes in the case of Mr. Davidson's 
test, and 29 boxes in the test made by Mr. Caldwell. 
It is well to note that Mr. Caldwell's orchard was only six 
years old and that only four pickings are reported. 



Experiment by J. C. Davidson, Chula Vista, Cal. 




Increase from 240 IBs. per acre, Sulfate of Potash, 81 boxes. 



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POTASH PAYS 



EXPERIMENT ON CELERY 

This experiment was made by W. E. Gerhard, Santa 
Ana, Cal. It was conducted on loose reclaimed swamp 
land which had produced a number of crops and was 
evidently worn out so far as an " available" supply of plant 
food was concerned. This is shown from the fact that the 
yield was more than doubled by the fertilizer applications. 
One third of the 90 crates increase produced from the 1300 
pounds of the fertilizer used was due to Potash. 

The amount of fertilizer applied to each plot, the yield 
and the amount of increase are shown in the following table: 



Plot 


Application per acre 

in pouni's 


Yield per acre 
in crates 


Increase over 
unfertilized plot 
(in crates) 


1 


No fertilizer 


70 





2 


750 Acid Phosphate 
300 Sulfate Potash 
250 Nitrate Soda 


150 


90 


3 


750 Acid Phosphate 
250 Nitrate Soda 


130 


63 




Experiment by W. E. Gerhard, Santa Ana, Cal. 
No Fertilizer Yield, 70 Crates per acre 



Experiment on Celery Iby W. E. Gerhard, Santa Ana, Cal. 




Complete Fertilizer POTASH, Phosphoric Acid and Nitrogen 
Yield, 160 Crates per acre 




Incomplete Fertilizer NO POTASH (Phosphoric Acid and Nitrogen only) 
Yield, 130 Crates per acre 



Experiment on Celery by W. E. Gerhard, Santa Ana, Cat. 




; Plot No. 1 No Fertilizer (70 crates) 

R01ative Yields \ Plot No. 2 WITH POTASH (160 crates) 
' Plot No. 3 NO POTASH (130 crates) 



POTASH PAYS 27 

SOME SUGGESTIONS ABOUT USING 
FERTILIZERS 

In the Introduction to this booklet we mentioned the 
fact that many farmers and fruit growers often preferred to 
buy the ingredients, or ' "simples" as they are called in 
California, and then make their own mixtures. This is a 
good way, when the farmer knows how much potash, 
phosphoric acid, and nitrogen are needed for the soil and 
the crop to be grown thereon. 

Of course, the most expensive of the three essential 
elements of plant food is the nitrogen, but fortunately 
Science has come to the aid of the farmer and has shown 
him how he can obtain a supply of nitrogen at a very 
moderate cost. In a few words it may be stated that this 
supply of nitrogen comes from the air, which is used by the 
bacteria in the soil and by all leguminous crops, of which 
clover and cowpeas are the most common. Thus, the 
farmer who wants to get cheap nitrogen, raises a leguminous 
crop and fertilizes his soil by turning it under. With 
proper care and study only comparatively small amounts 
of nitrogen, which is expensive whether in the form of 
manure or in a commercial fertilizer, need to be bought, 
and sometimes it may be omitted entirely, especially when 
leguminous crops are grown in rotation. 

It is different with the mineral fertilizers, that is with 
potash and phosphoric acid. They must be supplied in 
certain amounts according to the natural fertility of the 
soil, the requirements of the crop grown, and the system 
of cropping. 

The following suggestions as to the composition of a 
good average fertilizer should prove useful to farmers and 
fruit growers who wish to make their own mixtures. The 



28 . POTASH PAYS 

* 

quantity to be used will run from 250 pounds up to 1,000 
and even 2,000 pounds per acre. The largest yields and 
profits have been obtained by intensive cultivation with 
corresponding intensive use of fertilizers. 

Citrus Fruits For Growing Trees 

Nitrogen 4 per cent. 

Phosphoric Acid . 8 per cent. 

Potash 7 per cent. 

Sulfate of Potash 300 Ibs. 

Nitrate of Soda 500 Ibs. 

Acid Phosphate (16%) 800 Ibs. 

tBone Meal 400 Ibs. 

L'OOO Ibs. 

From three Ibs. per tree for the first year, to 15 Ibs. per 
tree for the sixth year is usually considered a fair 
application. 

For Bearing Trees 

Nitrogen 3 % P er cent. 

Phosphoric Acid 8 per cent. 

Potash 12% per cent. 

Sulfate of Potash 525 Ibs. 

Acid Phosphate (16%) 1000 Ibs. 

Nitrate of Soda 475 Ibs. 

2000 Ibs." 

From ten to twenty -five pounds per tree is the usual 
application. 

Deciduous Fruits For Growing Trees 

Nitrogen 3 per cent. 

Phosphoric Acid 9% per cent. 

Potash 10 per cent. 

Nitrate of Soda 400 Ibs. 

Acid Phosphate (16 per cent, \-j_200 Ibs 
available Phosphoric Acid) J 

Sulfate of Potash 400 Ibs. 

2000 Ibs. 

f NOTE -Bone Meal varies in composition. In this formula 
credit is given for 4 per cent Nitrogen and 8 per cent Phosphoric 
Acid available during the first year. 



POTASH PAYS 29 

For Bearing Trees 

Nitrogen 2 per cent. 

Phosphoric Acid 9 per cent. 

Potash 11 per cent. 

Nitrate of Soda 240 Ibs. 

Acid Phosphate (16 per cent.)\ Q -,, 
available Phosphoric Acid. J 

fSteamed Bone Meal 520 Ibs. 

Sulfate of Potash . . .440 Ibs. 



2000 Ibs. 
Vegetables, Potatoes, Roots, etc. 

Nitrogen 3 per cent. 

Phosphoric Acid 8 per cent. 

Potash 11 per cent. 

Nitrate of Soda 400 Ibs. 

Acid Phosphate (16% Avail.) . .1000 Ibs. 

Sulfate of Potash 440 Ibs. 

Filler*.. , 160 Ibs. 



2000 Ibs. 
For Corn, Alfalfa, Clover 

Nitrogen 2 per cent. 

Phosphoric Acid 8 per cent. 

Potash 10 per cent. 

Nitrate of Soda 120 Ibs. 

Dried Blood (12% Nitrogen). . .. 180 Ibs. 
Acid Phosphate (16% Avail.) . . 1000 Ibs. 

Muriate of Potash 400 Ibs. 

Filler* 300 Ibs. 

2000 Ibs. 
This is a good general purpose fertilizer. 

*NOTE - Filler is unnecessary but may be used if it is desired to 
keep fertilizer in bags after mixing. If omitted, each of the plant 
food percentages is increased by about eight per cent. It is evident 
that with 160 Ibs. of filler to the ton, only 92 per cent as much fer- 
tilizer would be required without the filler as* with it. With 300 Ibs. 
to ton, only 85$ as much. 

fNOTE - Calculated on basis of 1 per cent Nitrogen and 10 per 
cent. Available Phosphoric Acid. 



30 POTASH PAYS 

For Wheat and Small Grain 

Nitrogen . . 1 J per cent. 

Avail. Phos. Acid 10 per cent. 

Actual Potash 8 per cent. 

tBone Meal 780 Ibs. 

Acid Phosphate (16% Avail.) . . 900 Ibs. 
Muriate of Potash 320 Ibs. 



2000 Ibs. 


DESCRIPTION OF FERTILIZER MATERIALS 
Materials for Supplying Potash 

Muriate of Potash contains 50 per cent, of actual 
potash and is one of the most concentrated of plant food 
materials. As a rule, a pound of potash costs less in the 
form of muriate than in any other form of potash and for 
this reason it is the most popular source of potash in mixed 
fertilizers or for home mixing. Muriate of potash is not 
generally used, however, on white potatoes, tobacco or 
citrus fruits. 

Sulfate of Potash is recommended for citrus fruits, 
white potatoes and tobacco. It may be used upon all 
crops for which muriate of potash is recommended, and it 
is sometimes preferred for deciduous as well as citrus fruits. 
It occurs as a fine dry powder, and is readily adapted for 
mixing with other fertilizer materials. Sulfate of Potash 
usually contains 50 per cent, actual potash and is sold 
under a minimum guarantee of 48 per cent, actual potash. 

Kainit is a crude salt; that is, it has not been refined 
or manufactured other than being ground into a condition 
ready for application as a fertilizer. It is sold under a 

iXoxE-Bone Meal varies in composition. In this formula 
credit is given for 4 per cent. Nitrogen and 8 per cent, Phosphoric 
Acid available during the first year, 



PQTASK PAYS 81 

guarantee of 12.4 actual potash and contains potash, both 
in the forms of sulfate and muriate. It contains salts of 
magnesia and also common salt. Kainit can be used upon 
the crops for which muriate of potash is recommended. 

Materials Furnishing Phosphoric Acid. 

Materials furnishing phosphoric acid in a highly avail- 
able form are acid phosphate, dissolved bone and dissolved 
bone black. 

Phosphoric acid in a less readily available form, is to 
be had in bone meal and Thomas phosphate or basic slag. 
The amount which is available will depend to a great 
extent, upon how finely the material is ground. 

Ground bone meal contains, as a rule, from 25 to 28 
per cent, of total phosphoric acid of which 6 to 8 per cent, 
may be cons' dered available during the first year. It also 
contains from 1 to 4 per cent, nitrogen. Dissolved bone, 
acid phosphate and dissolved bone black usually contain 
from 14 to 17 per cent, available phosphoric acid. 

Materials Furnishing Nitrogen 

The principal commercial sources of nitrogen are nitrate 
of soda, supplying from 15 to 16 per cent of nitrogen: 
sulfate of ammonia, 19 to 20 per cent, nitrogen, and dried 
blood from 10 to 14 per cent according to the grade. Tank- 
age, in addition to supplying from 7 to 9 per cent, nitrogen 
usually contains about an equal amount of phosphoric 
acid. Of many other sources of nitrogen somewhat less 
in general use, we will mention dried fish scrap, containing 
from 7 to 9 per cent, nitrogen and 5% to 7 per cent, 
phosphoric acid, and cotton seed meal, containing 6% to 7 
per cent, nitrogen and a small amount of phosphoric acid 
and potash. 



B2 POT A SP? PAYS 

Materials supplying nitrogen should be selected accord- 
ing to their relative availability, so that the plant may have 
a full supply during the growing season. Nitrate of soda 
probably furnishes nitrogen in the most available form. 
Sulfate of ammonia is more slowly available but much 
more readily ayailable than dried blood, tankage or bi- 
products of the slaughter house. 



The interests of the farmer are best conserved by an 
intelligent interest on his part, in the composition of the 
fertilizers which he uses. Valuable suggestions have been 
given about good general purpose formulas and how to 
make them. It is possible however, with a better knowl- 
edge of the composition of the materials furnishing the 
elements, nitrogen phosphoric acid and potash, to com- 
pound fertilizers according to any desired formula. Since 
"experience is the best teacher, ' ' the farmer who will follow 
our suggestions pertaining to plot experiments will have an 
advantage over his neighbor who has not made practical 
tests with the plant food elements. 

As a result of our own experience we are confident 
that if these experiments are carefully conducted, even 
though it may be shown that on some soils and for some 
crops one element may be more important than another, 
the need of an available supply of potash will be demon- 
strated, and when put to the test of profit in dollars and 
cents, the conclusion will be that " Potash Pays." 



n\Unz A Co 

yJAteu; York 

1-21-13. 



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